Useful Equations

Max Heart Rate (HRmax))

• Age related: HRmax(bpm) = 220 – Age (yrs)
• Tanaka Equation: HRmax(bpm) = 208 − (0.7 × age)

Target Heart Rate (THR)

• Age based: THR = %intensity * HRmax
• Karvonen Equation: THR = ((HRmax − HRrest) × % intensity) + HRrest

Age Predicted Peak Aerobic Capacity for Healthy Adults (METs)

• Sedentary: METs = 16.6 – (0.16 x Age)
• Active: METs = 18.7 – (0.15 x Age)

Morris CK et al, Nomogram based on metabolic equivalents and age for assessing aerobic exercise capacity in men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Jul;22(1):175-82.

ACSM Metabolic Equations

Walking

VO2 (mL . kg-1 . min-1) = (0.1 . S) + (1.8 . S . G) + 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1

Running

VO2 (mL . kg-1 . min-1) = (0.2 . S) + (0.9 . S . G) + 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1

Leg Cycling

VO2 (mL . kg-1 . min-1) = 1.8(work rate) / (BM) + 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1+ 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1

Arm Cycling

VO2 (mL . kg-1 . min-1) = 3(work rate) / (BM) + 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1

Stepping

VO2 (mL . kg-1 . min-1) = (0.2 . f) + (1.33 . 1.8 . H . f) + 3.5 mL. kg-1.min-1

VO2 is gross oxygen consumption in (mL)/(kg x minute)
S is speed in meters/minute
BM is body mass (kg)
G is the percent grade expressed as a fraction
Work rate (kg x metes)/min
f is the stepping frequency in minutes
H is step height in meters

YMCA Test

Cahalin Formula for 6MWT