Hypertension Medications

Drug Class Mechanism of Action Rehab Implications Common Versions
Beta Blocker* Blocks Beta 1 receptors Suppressed HR and BP response to activity Metorolol (Lopressor),  Propranolol (Inderal), Carvedilol (Coreg)
Thiazide Diuretic* Block Na+ reabsorption in the distal tubule of nephron Orthostasis, volume depletion, frequent voiding, cramping Hydrochlorothiazide “HCTZ”, (Esidrix)
Loop Diuretic Block the Na+/K+/2Cl- resorption in the loop of Henle Orthostasis, volume depletion, frequent voiding, cramping Furosomide (Lasix)
Potassium Sparing Diuretic Blocks Aldosterone Orthostasis, volume depletion, frequent voiding Sprirolactone (Aldactone)
ACE-Inhibitor* Inhibits formation of Angiotensin II Orthostasis, Hypotension Lisinopril (Zestril), Captopril (Capoten) and Enalapril (Vasotec)
Angiotensin 2 Blocker (ARBs) Blocks Angiotensin 2 receptors Orthostasis, Hypotension Losartan (Cozar), Valsartan (Diovan)
Calcium Channel Blocker* Block Ca2+ entry into vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes Orthostasis, dizziness, HA Amlodipine(Norvasc), Diltiazem (Cardizem), Verapamil (Calan)
Alpha 1 Blocker Blocks Alpha 1 receptors in peripheral blood vessels Orthostasis (may be seen more for BPH than HTN) Doxazosin (Cardura), Prazosin (Minipress)
Vasodilator direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant Tachycardia, HA, Palpitations (not used as often) Hydralazine (Apresoline)

*Indicates a medication class commonly observed in Physical Therapy practice.

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